Commonwealth of Australia, consisting of its federal districtAustralian Capital Territory redthe states of New South Wales pinkQueensland blueSouth Australia purpleTasmania yellow, bottomVictoria greenWestern Australia orange and the Northern Territory yellow, top. On the 1st of January the nation-state of Australia officially came into existence as a federation. The Australian continent was colonised by the United Kingdom inwhich subsequently established six, eventually self-governing, colonies there.
Federalism is the theory or advocacy of such an order, including principles for dividing final authority between member units and the common institutions. A federation is one species of such a federal order; other species are unions, confederations, leagues and decentralised unions—and hybrids such as the present European Union ElazarWatts This division of power is typically entrenched in a constitution which neither a member unit nor the common government can alter unilaterally.
In comparison, decentralized authority in unitary states can typically be revoked by the central legislature at will. Many multilevel forms of governance may also be revised by units at one level without consent by bodies at other levels.
Confederations are often based on agreements for specific tasks, and the common government may be completely exercised by delegates of the member unit governments. Thus many would count as confederations the North American states during —, Switzerland —, and the present European Union—though it has several elements typical of federations.
In symmetric con federations the member units have the same bundles of powers, while in asymmetric con federations such as Russia, Canada, the European Union, Spain, or India the bundles may be different among member units; some member units may for instance have special rights regarding language or culture.
Some asymmetric arrangements involve one smaller state and a larger, where the smaller partakes in governing the larger while retaining sovereignty on some issues ElazarWatts If the decisions made centrally do not involve member units at all, we may speak of separate split or compact federalism.
The USA is often given as example, since the two Senators from each state are not representing or selected by member unit i.
State authorities but by electors voted directly by citizens—though this is by member unit decision U. II Section 1; cf. Federations can involve member units in central decision-making in at least two different ways in various forms of interlocking or cooperative federalism.
Several authors identify two quite distinct processes that lead to a federal political order FriedrichBuchananStepan and others. Independent states may aggregate by ceding or pooling sovereign powers in certain domains for the sake of goods otherwise unattainable, such as security or economic prosperity.
Such coming together federal political orders are typically arranged to constrain the center and prevent majorities from overriding a member unit.
Holding together federal political orders develop from unitary states, as governments devolve authority to alleviate threats of unrest or secession by territorially clustered minorities.
Such federal political orders often grant some member units particular domains of sovereignty e.
Examples include India, Belgium and Spain. In addition to territorially organized federal political orders, other interesting alternatives to unitary states occur when non-territorial member units are constituted by groups sharing ethnic, religious or other characteristics.
Tamir and Nimni Consociations consist of somewhat insulated groups in member units who in addition are represented in central institutions often governing by unanimity rather than by majority Lijphart History of Federalism in Western Thought A wide-spread interest among political philosophers in topics concerning the centralised nation state have fuelled attention to historical contributions on unitary sovereignty.
However, we can also identify a steady stream of contributions to the philosophy of federalism, also by those more well known for their arguments concerning centralised power cf. Karmis and Norman for such readings.
Several of the early contributors to federalist thought explored the rationale and weaknesses of centralised states as they emerged and developed in the 17th and 18th century. Johannes Althusius — is often regarded as the father of modern federalist thought.
Althusius was strongly influenced by French Huguenots and Calvinism. Orthodox Calvinists insisted on sovereignty in the social circles subordinate only to God's laws.
The people, regarded as a corporate body in territorial hierarchical communities, has a God-granted right to resist rulers without rightful claim.
Rejecting theocracy, Althusius developed a non-sectarian, non-religious contractualist political theory of federations that prohibited state intervention even for purposes of promoting the right faith. Accommodation of dissent and diversity prevailed over any interest in subordinating political powers to religion or vice versa.
Since humans are fundamentally dependent on others for the reliable provision of requirements of a comfortable and holy life, we require communities and associations that are both instrumentally and intrinsically important for supporting [subsidia] our needs.
Families, guilds, cities, provinces, states and other associations owe their legitimacy and claims to political power to their various roles in enabling a holy life, rather than to individuals' interest in autonomy.
Each association claims autonomy within its own sphere against intervention by other associations. Borrowing a term originally used for the alliance between God and men, Althusius holds that associations enter into secular agreements—pactum foederis—to live together in mutual benevolence.
Several early contributors explored what we may now regard as various species of federal political orders, partly with an eye to resolving inter-state conflicts. Elazar ; Riley In The Spirit of Laws Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu — argued for confederal arrangements as combining the best of small and large political units, without the disadvantages of either.
On the one hand they could provide the advantages of small states such as republican participation and liberty understood as non-domination—that is, security against abuse of power.
At the same time confederal orders secure the benefits of larger states such as military security, without the risks of small and large states. The member units in turn pool powers sufficient to secure external security, reserving the right to secede Book 9, 1.
Member units serve as checks on each other, since other member units may intervene to quell insurrection and power abuse in one member unit.This web-friendly presentation of the original text of the Federalist Papers (also known as The Federalist) was obtained from the e-text archives of Project Gutenberg.
For more information, see About the Federalist Papers. No. Of this description are the love of power or the desire of pre-eminence and dominion--the jealousy of power, or the.
Assuming that this is referring to the same list of options that was posted before with this question, the correct response would be that the main purpose of the Federalist Papers was to convince the colonists to ratify the Constitution, since the authors of the papers felt that this would create a much stronger and more prosperous country/5(16).
Federalism is a system of government in which entities such as states or provinces share power with a national government. The United States government functions according to the principles of federalism.
Which is the most accurate description of The Federalist Papers? the Federalist party platform for the elections a popular anti-British booklet of the pre-Revolutionary era a collection of essays arguing the merits of the Constitution a series of congressional acts defining the relationship between the federal and state governments NextReset5/5(7).
The Federalist Papers Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for The Federalist Papers is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the . Federalism is a method of government that allows two or more entities to share control over the same geographic region.
In the U.S., this means that the federal government, state governments and.