For the next three hundred years, Spaniards ranged through the continent building forts to defend strategic places, missions to proselytize Indians, and farms, ranches, and towns to reconstruct a familiar Iberian world. This engagingly written and well-illustrated book presents an up-to-date overview of the Spanish colonial period in North America.
European Union[ edit ] In the European Unionthe frontier is the region beyond the expanding borders of the European Union itself. EU has designated the countries surrounding it as part of the European Neighbourhood.
This is a region of primarily less-developed countries, many of which aspire to become part of the union. Current applicants include Turkey and many small countries in the Balkans and South Caucasus. Romania and Bulgaria joined EU in Proposals to admit Turkey have been debated but are now currently stalled, partly on the ground that Turkey is beyond Europe's historic frontier and it is yet to comply with the 35 point policy areas set out by EU.
If all or most East European states become members, the frontier may be the boundaries with Russia and Turkey. Muscovy and Russia[ edit ] The expansion of Russia to the north, south Wild Fields and east Siberiathe Russian Far East and Russian Alaska exploited ever-changing frontier regions over several centuries and often involved the development and settlement of Cossack communities.
Settlers at the frontier thus frequently referred to themselves as "the outsiders" or "outside residents" and to the area in which they lived as "the outside districts".
At times one might hear the "frontier" described as "the outside borders". The use of the word "frontier" was thus frequently connected to descriptions of frontier violence, as in a letter printed in the Sydney Morning Herald in December which described murder and carnage at the northern frontier and calling for the protection of the settlers saying: American frontierBritish colonization of the AmericasFrench colonization of the Americasand Spanish colonization of the Americas Voyageurs passing a waterfall The word "frontier" has often meant a region at the edge of a settled area, especially in North American development.
It was a transition zone where explorers, pioneers and settlers were arriving. Frederick Jackson Turner said that "the significance of the frontier" was that as pioneers moved into the "frontier zone," they were changed by the encounter.
For example, Turner argues in that in the United States, unlimited free land in this zone was available, and thus offered the psychological sense of unlimited opportunity. This, in turn, had many consequences such as optimism, future orientationshedding the restraints of land scarcity, and the wastage of natural resources.
In the earliest days of European settlement of the Atlantic coast, the frontier was any part of the forested interior of the continent lying beyond the fringe of existing settlements along the coast and the great rivers, such as the St.
English, French, Spanish and Dutch patterns of expansion and settlement were quite different. Only a few thousand French migrated to Canada. These habitants settled in villages along the St. Lawrence river, building communities that remained stable for long stretches, rather than leapfrogging west the way the English and later Americans did.
Although French fur traders ranged widely through the Great Lakes and Mississippi River watersheds, as far as the Rocky Mountainsthey did not usually settle down. French settlement in these areas was limited to a few very small villages on the lower Mississippi and in the Illinois Country.
They did not push westward. The typical English settlements were quite compact and small—under 3 square kilometres 1 square mile. Conflict with the Native Americans arose out of political issues, i.
Early frontier areas east of the Appalachian Mountains included the Connecticut River valley. Most of the frontier movement was east to west, but there were other directions as well. The frontier in New England lay to the north; in Nevada to the east; in Florida to the south.
Throughout American history, the expansion of settlement was largely from the east to the west, and thus the frontier is often identified with "the west. They emphasized the relationship between the center and periphery. Katerberg argues that "in Canada the imagined West must be understood in relation to the mythic power of the North.
Innis considered place as critical in the development of the Canadian West and wrote of the importance of metropolitan areas, settlements, and indigenous people in the creation of markets.
Turner and Innis continue to exert influence over the historiography of the American and Canadian Wests.
The Quebec frontier showed little of the individualism or democracy that Turner ascribed to the American zone to the south. The Nova Scotia and Ontario frontiers were rather more democratic than the rest of Canada, but whether that was caused by the need to be self-reliant at the frontier itself, or the presence of large numbers of American immigrants is debated.
Swiss immigrants camped on the shores of Lake Winnipeg in the autumn of The Canadian political thinker Charles Blattberg has argued that such events ought to be seen as part of a process in which Canadians advanced a "border" as distinct from a "frontier" — from east to west.
According to Blattberg, a border assumes a significantly sharper contrast between the civilized and the uncivilized since, unlike a frontier process, the civilizing force is not supposed to be shaped by that which it is civilizing.
Blattberg criticizes both the frontier and border "civilizing" processes. Canadian prairies[ edit ] The pattern of settlement of the Canadian prairies began inwhen the American prairie states had already achieved statehood.
Like their American counterparts, the Prairie provinces supported populist and democratic movements in the early 20th century.The Spanish Army in North America (Men-at-Arms) [René Chartrand, David Rickman] on grupobittia.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
A classic Men-at-Arms title detailing a major chapter in American military history. North American colonial history can broadly be divided into 'New France'. The Spanish Frontier in North America Book Description: This compact synthesis of David J.
Weber's prize-winning history of colonial Spanish North America vividly tells the story of Spain's three-hundred-year tenure on the continent. A frontier is the political and geographical area near or beyond a grupobittia.com term came from French in the 15th century, with the meaning "borderland"—the region of a country that fronts on another country (see also marches)..
A frontier can also be referred to as a "front". THE SPANISH FRONTIER IN NORTH AMERICA. by David J.
Weber. BUY NOW FROM. AMAZON KIRKUS REVIEW A comprehensive and copiously documented survey of years of Spanish colonial activity along its northern outposts in the New World, from Weber (History/Southern Methodist Univ.).
who since the 's has been considered the preeminent. The Spanish Frontier in North America is a narrative of Spanish colonial history from California to Florida between , when explorer Juan Ponce de León landed in Florida, to , when Mexico won independence from Spain and control of the Southwest.
"The Spanish Frontier in America (is) an important new study of the Spanish empire's collision with the native peoples of what is now the Southwestern United States, and of their joint encounter in the 19th century with English-speaking Americans."—Alan Brinkley, New York Times Book Review.