Here he discussed the conditions under which moral responsibility may be ascribed to individual agents, the nature of the virtues and vices involved in moral evaluation, and the methods of achieving happiness in human life. Every activity has a final cause, the good at which it aims, and Aristotle argued that since there cannot be an infinite regress of merely extrinsic goods, there must be a highest good at which all human activity ultimately aims. Ethics I 2 This end of human life could be called happiness or living wellof course, but what is it really? Neither the ordinary notions of pleasure, wealth, and honor nor the philosophical theory of forms provide an adequate account of this ultimate goal, since even individuals who acquire the material goods or achieve intellectual knowledge may not be happy.
Metaphysics substance, cause, form, potentiality Nicomachean Ethics soul, happiness, virtue, friendship Eudemain Ethics Politics best states, utopias, constitutions, revolutions Rhetoric elements of forensic and political debate Poetics tragedy, epic poetry 3.
From their perspective, logic and reasoning was the chief preparatory instrument of scientific investigation. Aristotle himself, however, uses the term "logic" as equivalent to verbal reasoning.
They seem to be arranged according to the order of the questions we would ask in gaining knowledge of an object. For example, we ask, first, what a thing is, then how great it is, next of what kind it is. Substance is always regarded as the most important of these.
Substances are further divided into first and second: Notions when isolated do not in themselves express either truth or falsehood: The elements of such a proposition are the noun substantive and the verb.
The combination of words gives rise to rational speech and thought, conveys a meaning both in its parts and as a whole. The truth or falsity of propositions is determined by their agreement or disagreement with the facts they represent.
Thus propositions are either affirmative or negative, each of which again may be either universal or particular or undesignated. A definition, for Aristotle is a statement of the essential character of a subject, and involves both the genus and the difference.
To get at a true definition we must find out those qualities within the genus which taken separately are wider than the subject to be defined, but taken together are precisely equal to it. For example, "prime," "odd," and "number" are each wider than "triplet" that is, a collection of any three items, such as three rocks ; but taken together they are just equal to it.
The genus definition must be formed so that no species is left out. Having determined the genus and species, we must next find the points of similarity in the species separately and then consider the common characteristics of different species. Definitions may be imperfect by 1 being obscure, 2 by being too wide, or 3 by not stating the essential and fundamental attributes.
Obscurity may arise from the use of equivocal expressions, of metaphorical phrases, or of eccentric words. The heart of Aristotle's logic is the syllogism, the classic example of which is as follows: All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal. The syllogistic form of logical argumentation dominated logic for 2, years until the rise of modern propositional and predicate logic thanks to Frege, Russell, and others.
Aristotle begins by sketching the history of philosophy. For Aristotle, philosophy arose historically after basic necessities were secured. It grew out of a feeling of curiosity and wonder, to which religious myth gave only provisional satisfaction.
The earliest speculators i. Thales, Anaximenes, Anaximander were philosophers of nature. The Pythagoreans succeeded these with mathematical abstractions.
The level of pure thought was reached partly in the Eleatic philosophers such as Parmenides and Anaxagoras, but more completely in the work of Socrates. Socrates' contribution was the expression of general conceptions in the form of definitions, which he arrived at by induction and analogy.
For Aristotle, the subject of metaphysics deals with the first principles of scientific knowledge and the ultimate conditions of all existence. More specifically, it deals with existence in its most fundamental state i.Aristotle's Moral Theory This Essay Aristotle's Moral Theory and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on grupobittia.com Autor: review • December 29, • Essay • 1, Words (8 Pages) • 1, Views4/4(1).
Simply include main points about the theory. Aristotle discusses Ethics in his Nicomachean Ethics, which, as far as I know, is just a set of lecture notes on Ethics which Aristotle compiled himself.
In line with the theory of moral virtue Aristotle contends that to achieve these aims and reach eudaimonia, one of the most important lessons Aristotle teaches in the theory of moral virtue is strike a balance, or hit a mean between extremes in behavior, thought, and action.
Aristotle compares three different lifestyles which help give us a broader picture of the kind of alternatives we have and to further clarify some of the finer points in . While moral theory does not invent morality, or even reflection on it, it does try to bring systematic thinking to bear on the phenomenon.
Ancient moral theory, however, does not attempt to be a comprehensive account of all the phenomena that fall under the heading of morality. Aristotle examines the concepts of substance (ousia) and essence (to ti ên einai, "the what it was to be") in his Metaphysics (Book VII), and he concludes that a particular substance is a combination of both matter and form, a philosophical theory called hylomorphism.