Definition Bullying synonyms There is no universal definition of bullying, however, it is widely agreed upon that bullying is a subcategory of aggressive behavior characterized by the following three minimum criteria: The Norwegian researcher Dan Olweus  says bullying occurs when a person is "exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons". He says negative actions occur "when a person intentionally inflicts injury or discomfort upon another person, through physical contact, through words or in other ways. Physical, verbal, and relational bullying are most prevalent in primary school and could also begin much earlier whilst continuing into later stages in individuals lives.
Employment Separates bullying from harassment and will provide some high level tactics that a Human Resources Manager HRM may engage to strategically minimise bullying. The essay does not cover the drivers of bullies, why bullying may take place, the effects of bullying nor does it seek to provide a detailed checklist to refer to when bullying is encountered.
As prescribed by the Health and Safety in Employment Actevery person in the workplace has a responsibility to create and maintain a safe and secure work environment. The HR function must also create an environment that ensures managers monitor compliance with safety practises and procedures in the organisation Rudman, A competent HRM recognises that stress is a workplace hazard.
Much research has gone into establishing the link between bullying contributing to work-related stress though this essay does not investigate that link. Compellingly, bullying is recognised as a significant workplace hazard in New Zealand Bentley et al, which affects employee health and, also importantly, business productivity.
Both expressions are often linked inextricably together, for example in a Bullying and Harassment Policy. Bullying and Bullying in the workplace essay both involve behaviours which, among other things can harm, intimidate, threaten, victimise, undermine, offend, degradeor humiliate.
The University of Sussex delineates the two expressions well: Therefore harassment tends to focus on discriminatory aspects such as gender, race, ethnic background, colour, religion, sexual orientation or disability. Harassment may be a single incident or a series of incidents.
It is not explicitly covered in legislation as illegal though this of course does not make it condonable. Workplace bullying can take a number of forms and none are mutually exclusive. It may be verbal, for example name calling, insults, teasing or verbal abuse.
It may be physical such as touching, pushing, hitting, Richards and Freeman,or damaging property. The possibility of violence, whether it is oral, visual, written or physical is considered a hazard and therefore should be managed accordingly.
Violence is at the extreme end of the bullying spectrum and if the assault is with a weapon or creates serious harm to someone this is regarded as criminal behaviour Sullivan, Best practice is for any Bullying Policy to include such possibilities so that they are preferably avoided or dealt with effectively if they do occur.
Ideally the organisation would have a robust Drug and Alcohol Policy to support and be congruent with the Bullying Policy. Covert bullying may include lying and spreading rumours, negative facial or physical gestures, playing jokes to humiliate or embarrass, mimicking, and encouraging others to socially exclude someone.
While these behaviours may be linked to bullying; the behaviours on their own would unlikely be enough to issue a warning on. The final type of bullying to be reviewed is likely to present a considerable challenge for HRM given rapidly advancing technology.
Cyber-bullying is either overt or covert behaviours or actions using digital technologies. Examples include harassment via a mobile phone, setting up a defamatory website or intentionally excluding someone from social networking platforms.
Cyber-bullying can happen at any time, can be in public or in private, and sometimes is only known to the victim and the person bullying. Instant messaging, texting, social network sites have all played a part in the increase of victims as they provide another medium for bullies to target the victim rather than just face to face Privitera and Campbell, Martin Cocker, Executive Director of NetSafe, an independent non-profit organisation promoting confident, safe, and responsible use of online technologies says online bullying is getting worse.
The interconnectedness of the workplace and, by extension employees, adds another dimension to managing bullying. For example, an employee may bring their personal smart-phone into the workplace, use it in their personal time and make derogatory comments to a colleague about another employee.
Any Internet, Email Arguably this is too late for the victim and the workplace has failed in its responsibility to provide a safe and secure environment.
Adding to this, globalisation creating an exposure to different cultures is a potential risk and any multinational company ought to have localised policies to deal with bullying effectively. The New Zealand Government is proposing legislation to criminalise cyber-bullying behaviour with the Harmful Digital Communications Bill.
While not specifically designed for workplace bullying, the purpose of the Bill is to make it easier for authorities to deal with cyber-bullies.
Largely because of advancing technologies and the ability of employees to engage in flexible work arrangements, this is a rapidly changing field and adds another layer of complexity for the HRM.
Any policy or procedure that the workplace has needs to be adapted and reflect these changing conditions. As mentioned previously, best practice demands that these policies are proactive and communicated before any situation occurs.Free Essay: Bullying in the Workplace On February 14th , Silvia Braun, a policewoman from Bavaria/Germany did not appear in her office in Munich.
Some. In this bullying article we take a look at verbal bullying. What is verbal bullying? What are the effects of verbal bullying? Read this article to learn more about how to recognize verbal bullying and ways to deal with verbal bullies.
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However, social media can also pose a risk to companies. Jan. 24, WA State Senate Labor & Commerce Committee Hearing on SB , the Healthy Workplace Bill..
It is the anti-workplace bullying legislation written by David Yamada, Law Professor, Suffolk University, Boston, for the Workplace Bullying Institute.
Bullying in the Workplace - Bullying is the topic of personal family life, schools, and in the workplace. Bullying in the workplace brings attention to both practitioners and researchers (Lind, Glasø, Pallesen, & Einarsen, ).