Background[ edit ] City of segregation[ edit ] Birmingham, Alabama was, in"probably the most thoroughly segregated city in the United States," according to King.
Black secretaries could not work for white professionals. When layoffs were necessary, black employees were often the first to go.
The unemployment rate for blacks was two and a half times higher than for whites. Significantly lower pay scales for black workers at the local steel mills were common. A neighborhood shared by white and black families experienced so many attacks that it was called "Dynamite Hill".
Hanes responded with a letter informing Shuttlesworth that his petition had been thrown in the garbage. If you win in Birmingham, as Birmingham goes, so goes the nation. Described by historian Henry Hampton as a "morass", the Albany movement lost momentum and stalled.
In Albany, they concentrated on the desegregation of the city as a whole. In Birmingham, their campaign tactics focused on more narrowly defined goals for the downtown shopping and government district.
Bull Connor A significant factor in the success of the Birmingham campaign was the structure of the city government and the personality of its contentious Commissioner of Public Safety, Eugene "Bull" Connor. Inpolice arrested ministers organizing a bus boycott.
The Birmingham Fire Department interrupted such meetings to search for "phantom fire hazards". Connor, who had run for several elected offices in the months leading up to the campaign, had lost all but the race for Public Safety Commissioner. In NovemberConnor lost the race for mayor to Albert Boutwella less combative segregationist.
So for a brief time, Birmingham had two city governments attempting to conduct business. The result, however, was a black community more motivated to resist. In the spring ofbefore Easter, the Birmingham boycott intensified during the second-busiest shopping season of the year.
Pastors urged their congregations to avoid shopping in Birmingham stores in the downtown district. For six weeks supporters of the boycott patrolled the downtown area to make sure blacks were not patronizing stores that promoted or tolerated segregation.
If black shoppers were found in these stores, organizers confronted them and shamed them into participating in the boycott.
Campaign participant Joe Dickson recalled, "We had to go under strict surveillance. We had to tell people, say look: Organizers believed their phones were tappedso to prevent their plans from being leaked and perhaps influencing the mayoral election, they used code words for demonstrations.
Most businesses responded by refusing to serve demonstrators. However, not enough people were arrested to affect the functioning of the city and the wisdom of the plans were being questioned in the black community. White religious leaders denounced King and the other organizers, saying that "a cause should be pressed in the courts and the negotiations among local leaders, and not in the streets".
Fred Shuttlesworth called the injunction a "flagrant denial of our constitutional rights" and organizers prepared to defy the order. The decision to ignore the injunction had been made during the planning stage of the campaign.
Because King was the major fundraiser, his associates urged him to travel the country to raise bail money for those arrested. He had, however, previously promised to lead the marchers to jail in solidarity, but hesitated as the planned date arrived.
Some SCLC members grew frustrated with his indecisiveness. The Department of Justice is looking at Birmingham. Are you ready, are you ready to make the challenge?
I am ready to go to jail, are you? He could have been released on bail at any time, and jail administrators wished him to be released as soon as possible to avoid the media attention while King was in custody.The fundamental concept and vision behind the Euro Facade Tech Group revolves around our people, dedicated to better understanding and .
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|The Olmsted Plan||Background[ edit ] City of segregation[ edit ] Birmingham, Alabama was, in"probably the most thoroughly segregated city in the United States," according to King.|
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