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This allows a description of cognitive development as resulting partially from and dependent upon biological events occurring in the brain.
Evidence shows that some eventual brain structures depend on a combination of biological events and instructional or experiential inputs. Such a description thereby permits some novel working hypotheses about normal cognitive development and how to foster it, as well as suggesting alternative ways of creating intervention programs for children from deprived environments.
Piagetian and Neo-Piagetian theories of human cognitive abilities attempt to describe what happens developmentally leading up to the mature state. They describe this almost entirely in terms of the psycho-social factors involved. But, cognitive functions and changes are more readily and more accurately understood and described if attention is also, if not first, paid to the facts of brain growth.
That understanding also permits parents and teachers to see ways to enhance children's cognitive development. Most of the needed biological information depends on the finding that age-wise correlated growth stages have been shown in human brain weight Epstein, a,head circumference Epstein, aEEG Epstein,Hudspeth and Pribram,and cerebral blood flow Epstein, In addition, the few relevant cytological studies Conel, ; Rabinowicz, show similar correlations with arborization.
Moreover, Rockel et al, found that, in main cortical areas, the thicknesses of layers III and V are the ones showing by far the greatest increases going up the ladder from mice to humans. It is known that many most?
Thus, evolution has proceeded by increasing the number of contacts among areas and their characteristic functions ; this bespeaks significant additional arborization.
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So the stages months and,and years are now experimental facts and not just theory. These brain growth spurts have been found to occur at the earliest onset ages of the Piaget stages of reasoning development Epstein,; Hudspeth and Pribram, ; therefore, they are probably the biological bases of the Piaget stages.
The brain increases include significant expansion of neural network arborization: The resultant additional and more complex neural networks make possible enhancements in brain functioning, depending for their quality on both the quality of the existing networks that are connected by the added arborization and, also, the quality and quantity of the external inputs that generate the consequent network changes.
Because these factors combine individual growth and experiences, age-wise and domain-wise developmental differences will be the norm. From this point of view, the Piaget stages will not necessarily be expected to be acquired in a fixed sequence nor even precisely at the canonical ages given by the Piagetians' studies, although general similarity of early experiences will preserve much of the sequence.
Only the biological events occur on an apparently fixed schedule as long as there are no prenatal or postnatal noxious inputs to the children. Children are born with some genetically prescribed neural networks that subserve the kinds of activities that occur automatically.
Breathing, sucking, sensory detection, metabolizing, and similar activities are already programmed into the brain and connections made to appropriate motor controls. From the day of birth, inputs to the child act on existing networks to strengthen, weaken, modify, and add to their activities.
For example, when the child is held and hugged, brain networks are activated and strengthened and firing spreads to associated networks; when the child is sung to, still other networks are strengthened to receive sounds and interpret them as song.
The repeated appearance of the mother provides a fixation object much as in imprinting in some animal species. The significant cortical spreading of the effects of apparently simple inputs are just being realized as a result of MRI and PET studies of the effects of such inputs.
Two relevant animal studies illustrating these points will be sketched. Prescott has reviewed work with macaque monkeys which showed differences between newborns raised by an always present mother and those raised by mothers who were arranged to be present only randomly.
By age 2 years, the latter monkeys were fearful in most situations, distressed if separated from the mothers, and socially inept.
The work of Ribble describes the similar events in humans in detail. These young elephants were raised without being in traditional herds: When they reached puberty, they went on rampages that are described in the study.
Some tried to attach themselves to neighboring herds of rhinoceroses, even trying to mate with their females.Start studying Adult and Adol. Dev. Unit 3.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Ages => identify things as appropriate for either males or females Ages => Perceptions of gender become less rigid What are 3 physical differences that exist between males and females? (FRQ). In early adulthood (ages 20–40), our physical abilities are at their peak, including muscle strength, reaction time, sensory abilities, and cardiac functioning.
The aging process also begins during early adulthood and is characterized by changes in skin, vision, and reproductive capability. In general, age-related reductions in physical work capacity are first observed between the ages of 40 and 50 years, albeit changes can occur as early as 20 years.
Ages => identify things as appropriate for either males or females Ages => Perceptions of gender become less rigid Ages => Perceptions become more rigid. Age disparity in sexual relationships is the difference in ages of individuals in sexual grupobittia.comts of these relationships, including what defines an age disparity, have developed over time and vary among societies.
The recent trend in obesity and excess body weight among Australian children has caused some concern that life expectancy at age 20 could fall by years for males (back to levels) and years for females (back to levels).