In the 19th and early 20th century, people recognized pediatrics as a medical specialty because of the gradual awareness that the health problems of children are different from those of adults. Any organization of these aspects of child health is necessarily arbitrary.
This chapter provides a summary of published literature and a framework for understanding those influences. OVERVIEW Biological influences as discussed in this chapter include genetic expressions, prenatal influences, as well as biological constraints and possibilities created by perinatal and postnatal events plus prior states of health.
Environmental influences are wide-ranging and include infectious agents, toxins such as lead and air pollution, and social factors such as loving interactions with caregivers, socioeconomic resources in the family and community, and peer relationships, segregation, racism, Health factors impede child development, the availability and quality of services, and policies that directly or indirectly affect these other interactive influences see Box For example, a pharmacological agent like thalidomide is highly toxic within a narrow window during pregnancy but not afterward, an attachment to a caring adult is especially critical during infancy, and peer influences appear to grow steadily from toddlerhood through adolescence.
Even within a childhood stage, health influences can act in very different ways because of the differing cultural interpretations that families attach to them. While biology, behavior, and environmental categories are useful for organizing our discussion, it is important to understand that healthy development is not the product of single, isolated influences or even types of influences.
Mothers may react with apathy or disinterest, which produces even more withdrawal on the part of the infant Lozoff, One caveat should be kept in mind in reading through the following review of evidence.
Few of the cited studies drew their evidence from randomized experiments. And few if any of the nonexperimental studies included all relevant variables in their data and analyses. Thus, the findings reported in these studies are likely to suffer from exclusion of potentially important categories of influences, so that the associations that are reported as being important may be due to their associations with a more important or equally important characteristic, or due to interactions with other types of factors so that their effect may be manifested primarily or only in certain population groups.
A related problem is that few of the cited studies include data that represent the whole population of children. Thus, the findings that are reported as significant may be significant only in the population studied or similar populations.
Nonetheless, the committee found the evidence to be sufficiently compelling to warrant inclusion when there was a plausible, well-supported connection between the influence and health. Moreover, inferences about the relative importance of the variety of influences are heavily dependent on the nature of the theoretical models that underlie statistical analysis.
If more proximal influences are mixed with more distal ones, they may appear to have stronger effects, even in situations in which more distal factors are operating on a multiplicity of proximal influences and therefore have cumulatively greater effect overall. Thus, future research should adapt more appropriate pathway techniques to help to sort out the patterns by which the influences interact to produce different states of health.
Finally, the relative lengths of the following sections are not meant to signify the relative importance of the influences. For some, the prevalence is less well known than for others. From the viewpoint of influences on population or sub-population health, the relative frequency of the different influences is at least as critical as the degree of the risk that they pose to individuals.
Additional research is needed to refine understanding of the relative contribution of each of the influences and the relevance of each across a variety of social and cultural groups.
Biological response patterns, including responses to stress, novel situations, and primary relationships, can directly and indirectly influence other biological, cognitive learningand behavioral processes.
Genes DNA provides the blueprint for life. The units of heredity, or genes, are specific sequences of DNA that code for proteins that affect the particular physiology and anatomy of an individual.
All cells contain the full array of genes but, depending on the cell type, some are expressed while others are not; for example, certain genes coding for proteins in the retina are expressed in the cells of the eye, but not in the pancreas cells.
Disruptions in genes can be caused by events before, during, or after conception and may produce disorders immediately or later in life.
A parent can pass on a defective or abnormal gene or set of genes, a malfunction can occur during combination of maternal and paternal DNA, or exposure to an outside substance or condition can occur after conception that alters the genes in the fetus. Physical and social environments e.
The combinations of these interactions may result in an enhanced, worsened, or inconsequential change in health status. For example, sometimes an alteration in the gene i.
Understanding the biological pathway of the disease and its interactions with other biological processes facilitates treatment options by modifying the causal path. The influence of genes on health always exists in an environmental context; in the next sections we describe how genes affect behavior and the physical and social environments.
That genes affect behavior has been amply demonstrated in honeybees Ben-Shahar et al. Examples in humans are being rapidly discovered, including genes that influence the relationship between exposure to trauma and susceptibility to posttraumatic stress disorder Stein et al.
Genes and the Physical Environment. The physical environment includes ubiquitous agents e. Some genes result in poor outcomes following common environmental exposures e. Individuals with these genotypes are likely to be affected by the disease because they have a high chance of being exposed to the physical environmental agent.
In some cases, the physical environment can be modified to improve outcomes e. There are also gene alterations resulting from uncommon physical environmental exposures that affect health.
Examples include a higher risk of lung cancer in individuals lacking glutathione S-transferase mu who smoke Perera et al.parenting, child health and development issues, but also needs regarding parental physical and mental health, marital relations, social support, housing, transport, employment, finances, and citizenship.
Jan 03, · There are a multitude of health factors that could impede a child's mental, physical and educational development. You'll have to be a little more specific grupobittia.com: Resolved.
Health Factors Impede Child Development ANALYSE THE FACTORS THAT CAN AFFECT THE DEVELOPMENT OF BABIES IN THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE. ‘Neuroses are only acquired during early childhood even though their symptoms may not make their appearance until much later.
The events of the first year are of paramount importance . Early child development needs to be a priority issue in policy and practice. Poverty is the factor creating most stress within families and undermines healthy child development.
Some population groups face considerable inability to access services related to. promote child development; two health factors that may impede child development.
♦ An assessor checklist recording that the candidate has produced a report on the ways in which the health needs of these children can be met by adults and the ways in which positive and negative. Health Factors Which May Promote Child Development ANALYSE THE FACTORS THAT CAN AFFECT THE DEVELOPMENT OF BABIES IN THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE ‘Neuroses are only acquired during early childhood even though their symptoms may not make their appearance until much later.
The events of the first year are of paramount importance for a child’s whole subsequent life’.