Kant pursues this project through the first two chapters of the Groundwork. The point of this first project is to come up with a precise statement of the principle or principles on which all of our ordinary moral judgments are based. The judgments in question are supposed to be those that any normal, sane, adult human being would accept on due rational reflection. Nowadays, however, many would regard Kant as being overly optimistic about the depth and extent of moral agreement.
Artificial intelligence has already provided beneficial tools that are used every day by people around the world. Its continued development, guided by the following principles, will offer amazing opportunities to help and empower people in the decades and centuries ahead.
Research Issues 1 Research Goal: The goal of AI research should be to create not undirected intelligence, but beneficial intelligence.
Investments in AI should be accompanied by funding for research on ensuring its beneficial use, including thorny questions in computer science, economics, law, ethics, and social studies, such as: How can we make future AI systems highly robust, so that they do what we want without malfunctioning or getting hacked?
How can we update our legal systems to be more fair and efficient, to keep pace with AI, and to manage the risks associated with AI? What set of values should AI be aligned with, and what legal and ethical status should it have?
There should be constructive and healthy exchange between AI researchers and policy-makers. A culture of cooperation, trust, and transparency should be fostered among researchers and developers of AI.
Teams developing AI systems should actively cooperate to avoid corner-cutting on safety standards. Ethics and Values 6 Safety: AI systems should be safe and secure throughout their operational lifetime, and verifiably so where applicable and feasible. If an AI system causes harm, it should be possible to ascertain why.
Any involvement by an autonomous system in judicial decision-making should provide a satisfactory explanation auditable by a competent human authority.
Designers and builders of advanced AI systems are stakeholders in the moral implications of their use, misuse, and actions, with a responsibility and opportunity to shape those implications. Highly autonomous AI systems should be designed so that their goals and behaviors can be assured to align with human values throughout their operation.
AI systems should be designed and operated so as to be compatible with ideals of human dignity, rights, freedoms, and cultural diversity. AI technologies should benefit and empower as many people as possible. The economic prosperity created by AI should be shared broadly, to benefit all of humanity.
Humans should choose how and whether to delegate decisions to AI systems, to accomplish human-chosen objectives.
The power conferred by control of highly advanced AI systems should respect and improve, rather than subvert, the social and civic processes on which the health of society depends. An arms race in lethal autonomous weapons should be avoided.
Longer-term Issues 19 Capability Caution: There being no consensus, we should avoid strong assumptions regarding upper limits on future AI capabilities. Advanced AI could represent a profound change in the history of life on Earth, and should be planned for and managed with commensurate care and resources.
Risks posed by AI systems, especially catastrophic or existential risks, must be subject to planning and mitigation efforts commensurate with their expected impact. AI systems designed to recursively self-improve or self-replicate in a manner that could lead to rapidly increasing quality or quantity must be subject to strict safety and control measures.
Superintelligence should only be developed in the service of widely shared ethical ideals, and for the benefit of all humanity rather than one state or organization.Ethics, also called moral philosophy, the discipline concerned with what is morally good and bad, right and wrong.
The term is also applied to any system or theory of moral values or principles.. How should we live? Shall we aim at happiness or at knowledge, virtue, or the creation of beautiful objects?If we choose happiness, will it be our own or . Moral Relativism. Moral relativism is the view that moral judgments are true or false only relative to some particular standpoint (for instance, that of a culture or a historical period) and that no standpoint is uniquely privileged over all others.
It has often been associated with other claims about morality: notably, the thesis that different cultures often exhibit radically different moral. 19) Capability Caution: There being no consensus, we should avoid strong assumptions regarding upper limits on future AI capabilities.
20) Importance: Advanced AI could represent a profound change in the history of life on Earth, and should be planned for and managed with commensurate care and resources. 21) Risks: Risks posed by AI systems, especially catastrophic or existential risks, must.
Moral Development. This entry analyzes moral development as a perennial philosophical view complemented by modern empirical research programs. The two initial sections summarize what moral development is and why it is important for ethics and human nature theory.
Moral Markets challenges the 'homo economicus' rational choice framework of mainstream economics with 15 chapters contributed by a team researching the nature of values in economic thinking.
Zak has compiled what may become a starting point for further work on this topic, given the volume's scope and creative insights. The Moral Landscape: How Science Can Determine Human Values - Kindle edition by Sam Harris. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets.
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