Ninth Congress Republic Act No.
No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws.
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any purpose shall be inviolable, and no search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue except upon probable cause to be determined personally by the judge after examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may produce, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized.
No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech, of expression, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances.
No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed.
No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights. The liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits prescribed by law shall not be impaired except upon lawful order of the court. Neither shall the right to travel be impaired except in the interest of national security, public safety, or public health, as may be provided by law.
The right of the people to information on matters of public concern shall be recognized. Access to official records, and to documents and papers pertaining to official acts, transactions, or decisions, as well as to government research data used as basis for policy development, shall be afforded the citizen, subject to such limitations as may be provided by law.
The right of the people, including those employed in the public and private sectors, to form unions, associations, or societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be abridged. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation.
No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed. Free access to the courts and quasi-judicial bodies and adequate legal assistance shall not be denied to any person by reason of poverty. If the person cannot afford the services of counsel, he must be provided with one.
These rights cannot be waived except in writing and in the presence of counsel. Secret detention places, solitary, incommunicado, or other similar forms of detention are prohibited. All persons, except those charged with offenses punishable by reclusion perpetua when evidence of guilt is strong, shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, or be released on recognizance as may be provided by law.
The right to bail shall not be impaired even when the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus is suspended. Excessive bail shall not be required. However, after arraignment, trial may proceed notwithstanding the absence of the accused: Provided, that he has been duly notified and his failure to appear is unjustifiable.
The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except in cases of invasion or rebellion, when the public safety requires it. All persons shall have the right to a speedy disposition of their cases before all judicial, quasi-judicial, or administrative bodies.
No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself. Neither shall death penalty be imposed, unless, for compelling reasons involving heinous crimes, the Congress hereafter provides for it.
Any death penalty already imposed shall be reduced to reclusion perpetua. No person shall be imprisoned for debt or non-payment of a poll tax. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the same offense.
If an act is punished by a law and an ordinance, conviction or acquittal under either shall constitute a bar to another prosecution for the same act. No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted.Full text of the Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines.
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Social Discrimination, Identity, amongst social classes and races. In the Philippines, the lack of education is the primary reason why it cannot move forward towards progress, and has led to social problems such as: scarcity of job opportunities, impoverished family life.
Racial Hierarchy in Philippines Peninsulares – The highest level of the racial hierarchy in Philippines is composed by Peninsulares class. These were the person of pure Spanish descent born in Spain. Filipinos have experienced racial discrimination against foreigners, such as our.
colonizers who referred to Filipinos as indios or negritos, or some other derogatory. term. The Filipinos have also been considered as uncivilized, half-savage and.