The first ten to fifteen miles the surf was murky and full of various sea grasses and algae making fishing marginal, at best. Thankfully fishing guide Jeff Wolda was on his way out and mentioned that the water was much clearer in the twenties. Sure enough, not only was the water clear down at Big Shell beach, but there was no weed to foul the fishing lines either.
In Alan Guth realized that false vacuum decay in the early universe would solve the problem, leading him to propose a scalar-driven inflation.
Starobinsky's and Guth's scenarios both predicted an initial de Sitter phase, differing only in mechanistic details. Early inflationary models Guth proposed inflation in January to explain the nonexistence of magnetic monopoles;   it was Guth who coined the term "inflation".
Like Guth, they concluded that such a model not only required fine tuning of the cosmological constant, but also would likely lead to a much too granular universe, i.
The physical size of the Hubble radius solid line as a function of the linear expansion scale factor of the universe. During cosmological inflation, the Hubble radius is constant. The physical wavelength of a perturbation mode dashed line is also shown. The plot illustrates how the perturbation mode grows larger than the horizon during cosmological inflation before coming back inside the horizon, which grows rapidly during radiation domination.
If cosmological inflation had never happened, and radiation domination continued back until a gravitational singularitythen the mode would never have been inside the horizon in the very early universe, and no causal mechanism could have ensured that the universe was homogeneous on the scale of the perturbation mode.
Guth proposed that as the early universe cooled, it was trapped in a false vacuum with a high energy density, which is much like a cosmological constant. As the very early universe cooled it was trapped in a metastable state it was supercooledwhich it could only decay out of through the process of bubble nucleation via quantum tunneling.
Bubbles of true vacuum spontaneously form in the sea of false vacuum and rapidly begin expanding at the speed of light. Guth recognized that this model was problematic because the model did not reheat properly: Radiation could only be generated in collisions between bubble walls.
But if inflation lasted long enough to solve the initial conditions problems, collisions between bubbles became exceedingly rare. In any one causal patch it is likely that only one bubble would nucleate. Kazanas called this phase of the early Universe "de Sitter's phase. Guth himself did not refer to work of Kazanas until he published a book on the subject under the title "The inflationary universe: In this model, instead of tunneling out of a false vacuum state, inflation occurred by a scalar field rolling down a potential energy hill.
When the field rolls very slowly compared to the expansion of the Universe, inflation occurs. However, when the hill becomes steeper, inflation ends and reheating can occur. Effects of asymmetries Main article: Primordial fluctuations Eventually, it was shown that new inflation does not produce a perfectly symmetric universe, but that quantum fluctuations in the inflaton are created.
These fluctuations form the primordial seeds for all structure created in the later universe. Chibisov in analyzing Starobinsky's similar model.
In addition, it accounts for the observed flatness and absence of magnetic monopoles. Since Guth's early work, each of these observations has received further confirmation, most impressively by the detailed observations of the cosmic microwave background made by the Planck spacecraft.
Inflation predicts that the structures visible in the Universe today formed through the gravitational collapse of perturbations that were formed as quantum mechanical fluctuations in the inflationary epoch.
The detailed form of the spectrum of perturbations, called a nearly-scale-invariant Gaussian random field is very specific and has only two free parameters.
One is the amplitude of the spectrum and the spectral indexwhich measures the slight deviation from scale invariance predicted by inflation perfect scale invariance corresponds to the idealized de Sitter universe.
The simplest inflation models, those without fine-tuningpredict a tensor to scalar ratio near 0.September 11, Thirteen years ago, it was September 11, It was a beautiful, sunny day. But it was a day many people will always re member because of something that happened that morning.
Four airplanes were hijacked. Rutgers Physics News Chemistry Professor and member of our Graduate Faculty Wilma Olson has been named a Fellow of the American Physical Society by the Division of Biological Physics.
The citation for Wilma reads: "For seminal contributions to understanding nucleic acid structure, properties, and interactions, for leadership in developing important computational methods used to analyze. Introduction. There is an unspoken mystery about our planet, various kinds of electricity, magnetism about the North and South poles, the electric currents emitted by living things, mental telepathy, the affect electricity may have on our health and the prediction of the end of the earth in Click here for Experiment 2 - Standing Waves.
‹ Experiment 1 - Driven Harmonic Oscillator up Experiment 3 - Electrostatics ›. Printer-friendly version. Purpose. This laboratory experiment is designed to study the parameters that affect standing (stationary) waves in various strings. The effects of string tension and density on . EXAMPLE OF A WELL WRITTEN LAB REPORT FOR.
PHYSICS L/L. 26 June STANDING WAVES ON A STRING James A. Welsch. Mark A. Wilson. Objective: To find the relationship between the velocity and wave length of standing.