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Abstract Enunciation of this subject in the editorial space of a psycho-political journal might seem surprising. However, fashion — as a continuous and cyclic transformation of the preferences of a society — offers a series of social aspects relevant for the study of the political psychology: This article is an attempt to reconstruct the scientific tract of the fashion phenomenon in the study of the classical sociology on the whole.
Fashion, modernity, habitus, consumption Gabriel Tarde: Imitation theory In the sociological approach of fashion phenomena one can distinguish two orientations: Other recent directions of fashion reflect theoretical and empirical acquirements afferent to consumption sociology, body sociology and cultural studies.
In a theoretical plan, sociological conceptions about fashion are claimed by the thematic interest at the beginning of the XXth century, corresponding to the debate over modernity. As phenomena, fashion and modernity are correlative, in the sense that both illustrate the search and institution of the new L.
Vlasceanu,28but, in a systematical plan, the equivalent of this notions would be an error, as Matei Calinesculiterary critic and analyst of modernity concepts, notifies us.
From an historical point of view, the emergency of the fashion phenomena has been started by the progressive urbanization at the beginning of the industrial era M. In his multiple choices, the individual does not do anything else that act under the impulse of imitation and of mental contagion, performing behaviors that he observes at his neighbors.
This was the dominating conception of the scientific discourse between the XIXth and the XXth century, under the influence of some famous works dating from the same period: Anterior to Gabriel Tarde and Gustave Le Bon, some observations and discoveries from biology had already provided arguments concerning the imitative behavior of some species of animals.
The imitation, to which one grants a great influence within social phenomena, is in real life, just a simple effect of contagion […].
Like animals, the human being is by its nature an imitator. For him, imitation is a need, with the condition that this imitation be handy; this kind of need represents the spring for fashion.
Either it is all about opinions, ideas, literary manifestations or just simple clothing, how many people dare to withdraw from its domination? Fashion lead masses, and not arguments G. Fashion appears like a type of imitation which is largely spread in real day life.
The human being is by his essence a social being who imitates ideas, customs, standards, social values, fashion, and behaviors. There are two types of imitations: In agreement with imitation law from the superior to the inferior and with imitation law from the exterior to the interior ad interioribus ad exterioraformulated by the French psychologist, the lower classes of the society first copy the ideas, wishes, manners and then the behaviors, styles of clothing, language, customs of higher classes.
The third law that of degradation of the social model of imitation is responsible for the continuous propagation of imitation and the maintenance of social stratification idem, Trickle down theory The essay of the German sociologist Georg Simmel about fashion phenomena, published for the first time inin the magazine International Quarterly vol.
X in New York, has marked the theoretical destiny of fashion sociology for approximately sixty years. The reception of this article took place in the context in which, only four years before, inGeorg Simmel published the volume Philosophie des Geldes, and in he was ending his PhD thesis concerning the philosophy of Immanuel Kant.
The adoption of fashion by the individual reflects the particularity of the standard that this one generates. So, the fashion objectivises in the same the currents which are contrary to life: Another stage of lecture of this essay aims the predilection theme of sociology, at the confluence between the XIXth and XXth century.
Even of socialism and individualism were fashion aspects, as the author mentions. In this situation, the higher class permanently recreates distinctive signs, as an expression of the symbolic unity of the status and the differentiation of the lower class, this last one imitating and adopting the fashion of the upper one, destroying the limits fixed by this one idem, As masses start to imitate the fashion of higher classes, these ones adopt a new fashion that differentiates it from the masses, and, by consequence, the process is a continuous one.
The whole fashion history illustrated the will of the individual to differentiate and the will to observe a social standard. This is the fact in which consists the feature of the fashion, as Georg Simmel underlines. The essential functions of the fashion ensure, o none hand, the connection between the ones that can be found on the sale social stage, and on the other hand, fashion acts as a differentiation between the members of higher classes and the members of masses: According to Georg Simmel, fashion exists when the two conditions are met: So, fashion offers in the same time an individual distinction and group cohesion.
Almost all museums and history books of clothing have exclusively illustrated and traced the vertical flux of fashion initiated by aristocracy. Starting from these historical precedents, it is easy to sum up that fashion has belonged, in a traditional sense, to the upper class, this meaning to a small and famous group cf.
Personally, I consider that ulterior researches have not done anything else then infirm or confirm this theory.
The theoretical exposure from this article will argument that the trickle-across theory, formulated as an explicative alternative to the mechanism of fashion propagation, has also supported the democratization of consumption, but has not succeeded in having a decisive role in fashion sociology.
The multiple exegesis over the writings of George Simmel, enframe him as a marcant personality in the scientific fundamentation of sociology D. Sassatelli,42; S.
Dungaciu,18 and maybe the most important classic sociologist D. But the text of the essay has been interpreted in a divergent manner.The ROC administration of Taiwan under Chen Yi was strained by increasing tensions between Taiwanese-born people and newly arrived mainlanders, which were compounded by economic woes, such as hyperinflation.
while its nominee Ma Ying-jeou went on to win the presidency in March of the same year, campaigning on a platform of increased. This study is concerned with Taiwan's politics and its relations with China following the election of Chen Shui-bian as President in March Taiwan in Troubled Times is concerned with Taiwan's politics and its relations with China following the election of Chen Shui-bian as President in March This event created problems between Taiwan and China and led to political gridloc.
Given the continuing interest in Taiwan and the momentous changes it has experienced recently, including a historic change of ruling parties when Chen Shui-bian won the presidency in and the KMT that had been in power for more than fifty years became the opposition, a third edition of the Historical Dictionary of Taiwan (Republic of China.
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