Get Access The Feminist Critique Of Classical Criminology Criminology Essay The feminist review of classical criminology has focused foremost on the marginalisation of adult females in its surveies and secondly on the contention that when adult females are studied, it is in a peculiarly limited and distorting manner. Attempts to build a clearly feminist criminology have been made with usage of methodological analysiss including empiricist philosophy and point of view theory. However, these theories have received unfavorable judgment for their essentialist premises and cosmopolitan claims.
More Essay Examples on Crime Rubric His scientific theories centred on the idea that a criminal was a naturally occurring phenomenon, a biological mutation or throwback to an earlier form of evolutionary life, in other words people were born criminal, not made criminal and did not have a choice in their behaviour.
He based his theory on facial features and abnormalities in the cranium on prisoners in an Italian jail who he claimed had true atavistic features, for example small craniums, excessive hairiness, dark skin, and the presence of moles and tattoos.
He thought these particular physical features had a relationship with the probability of engaging in crime Newburn, ; Smart, They argued that women were nearer to their original origin than men, in other words were more primitive than men, had not evolved to the same degree and were biologically inferior to men Smart, They believed women were wicked or saintly; prostitutes or mothers; mad or bad and women criminals possess all the criminal qualities of the male plus the worst characteristics of women; cunning, spite and deceitfulness and because of these traits women criminals were thought of as doubly deviant Smart, Lombroso and Ferrero believed that if a woman did degenerate into atavism they were more likely to become prostitutes Heidensohn, They also believed that one strong proof of the degeneration of the female criminal was the lack of maternal instinct and belong more to the male sex and the female sex.
However, Oakleycited in Smart, p. He was saying any evidence of gendered masculinity in women, does not play a part in criminal activity. Heidensohn argues that Lombroso and Ferrero work was more implausible than scientific; his analysis of the photographs of the fallen women was like adjudicating a beauty contest, this is could be considered to be a limitation.
Smart agrees with this criticism, she argues that the crude theory of atavism was very unfortunate and amusing in the development of criminology.
McLaughlin and Muncie argue that this theory does not look at social interaction and human consciousness being responsible for criminal activity; this could be considered a weakness of this approach.
In the Biological Positivist theory it is believed because people are born criminal and have no choice in their behaviour they cannot just be punished because that would not alter their criminal activity and behaviour.
One form of punishment would be Eugenics, treatment to control degenerates by sterilization Newburn, Another form of treatment would be Aversion Therapy; a psychological treatment where an individual is exposed to a stimulus while simultaneously being subjected to a form of discomfort, this was done to retrain criminal behaviour Newburn, Feminist Criminology confronts the patriarchal sense of criminology that males make all the rules in society and politics in order to control women Smart, In other words there are structures in place to make the treatment of women criminals unfair; men making the rules and laws who have no idea about the lives of women.
Young stated no date, Cited in Naffine, p. Therefore, Feminist criminology argues to make the invisible, visible again by bringing into focus the gender structure of society Maguire et al, A major breakthrough of this approach was the introduction of the Domestic Violence and Matrimonial Proceeding Act as a result of the feminist movement and this was followed by the Domestic Violence, Crime and Victims Act This gave protection from patriarchal views on the males being allowed to chastise their wives.
However, there were some discrepancies and unfairness in the treatment of women offenders and victims. In the case of Joseph McGrail inhe killed his wife and pleaded provocation on the basis that his wife was an alcoholic and swore at him.
In the case of Malcolm Thornton inan alcoholic threatened to kill his wife Sara and her daughter and this was following several attacks on her.
She stabbed him once when he was asleep and then called the ambulance. Sara Thornton pleaded diminished responsibility but she was found guilty of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment.
CarlenCited in Newburn, believes that women commit fewer crimes than men, and fewer serious crimes, for example murder and grievous bodily harm and he states that women and punishment are rarely brought together.
Pollak was saying men have not believed women could be criminal and have failed to report, charge and convict women for the offences they commit. This view is also shared by the Biological Positivist Approach, that women are biologically inferior to men by their weakness and undeveloped intelligence.
This feature of doubly deviant is shared by the Biological Positivist approach also. This view was shared by Carlenp. This is the same as the biologically positivist approach, the belief that lack of maternal instincts makes women unnatural and more prone to criminal behaviour.
In conclusion, this essay has looked at two approaches in criminology; the Biological Positivist Approach and Feminist Criminology Approach. The main features of the Biological Positivist Approach have been discussed, these included looking in to the work of Lombroso and Ferrero who views are individuals were born criminal, they did not have a choice in their behaviour and women who have no maternal instinct were more likely to engage in criminal activity.
Newburn states that their works have been largely discredited and social and economic situations are more likely to cause criminal activity and behaviour. However, they were the first theorists to gather empirical evidence in the study of criminology and their work had major influence for many decades.This essay has been submitted by a law student.
This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. Feminist Perspectives in Criminology. This neglect is characteristic of correctional criminology, which is a “correctional, social-problems-oriented approach to the study of crime” (Hester & Eglin, , p.7).
Correctional criminology has three major flaws that are problematic from a sociological point of view. Although feminist criminology is not mainstream criminology, it has been quite successful in establishing its critique.
This essay shows that study of women and crime is a small branch in criminology. It shows how women are not included in mainstream criminology or so called male-stream criminology.
We will write a custom essay sample on Reviewing Criticisms Feminist Writers Made Of Criminology Criminology Essay specifically for you for only $ $/page. Order now The Feminist Critique Of Classical Criminology Criminology Essay ;.
Another feminist criminology which was constructed from the critique of classical theory was standpoint feminism. Standpoint feminism contended that criminology's continuing preoccupation with the viewpoint of men was a function of power. Another feminist criminology which was constructed from the critique of classical theory was standpoint feminism.
Standpoint feminism contended that criminology’s continuing preoccupation with the viewpoint of men was a function of power.