The Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation 1. A rebirth Now the Renaissance is essentially the 15th and 16th centuries. Some people date the Renaissance frombut that is preposterous; you may as well say it started on high noon on a Tuesday.
For these groups and their associated literary, scientific and political circles, events in France signified a much deeper change in government. I see the ardour for liberty catching and spreading Following hard on the American Revolutionthe sweeping aside of the French feudal order demonstrated the irresistible rise of freedom and enlightenment.
I see the ardour for liberty catching and spreading; The debate rapidly became an escalating battle of political rhetoric and mobilisation.
The controversy gave renewed energy to metropolitan and provincial reform societies, such as the Society for Constitutional Information SCIand fuelled the emergence of new associations, some organised by ordinary working people who declined the patronage and control of the wealthy.
The society went on to become hugely influential and developed scores of divisions and local branches. In Maythe government reacted with a Royal Proclamation against seditious writing.
Gentlemen, to whom are these positions addressed The establishment of the Association for the Protection of Liberty and Property against Republicans and Levellers helped turn the tide by encouraging provincial correspondents to communicate with the London base, enjoining the denunciation and prosecution of local radicals, and circulating loyalist tracts and pamphlets to the middling and artisan classes.
Branches also organised local demonstrations of loyalty, including over ritualised burnings of Tom Paine. Petitions and popular pressure for reform produced increasing intransigence in the government and exacerbated tensions amongst the Whigs culminating in the defection of Burke and the Portland Whigs to Pitt in June In turn, reformers attempted to organise a National Convention to express popular support for reform.
Such conventionism has precursors in the s, but its popularisation alarmed the government and the notorious Judge Braxfield reacted punitively to the leaders of the Scottish and British Conventions of by sentencing them to transportation.
In a series of dramatic trials in October and November the accused were acquitted. Top The Two Acts Following the trials, the LCS focussed on mobilising popular unrest against the war, taxation, food shortages, and recruitment, through mass public meetings in June and October A huge petitioning campaign followed, with loyalists expressing support and reformers protesting against the restriction, but the Bills were passed.
The Two Acts encouraged an increasingly close alliance between the Foxite Whigs and the reformers. Meanwhile, following further prosecutions and harassment, the popular movement was driven underground and into more conspiratorial activity - emerging in a series of splinter groups - the United Englishmen, United Irishmen and United Scotsmen.
Top Ireland and war The Irish radicals, with a longer history of repression and a nationalist cause to fight, produced a full-scale insurrection in the summer ofbut were savagely repressed and collapsed before the promised French invasion force arrived.
The Union of Ireland and Britain in further weakened Irish radicalism, although there was a final rebellion in In Britain the suspension of habeas corpus enabled the government to imprison most of the leading radicals and to silence the popular movement, despite widespread social unrest from due to poor harvests and high taxes.
The Defence of the Realm Acts of and sought to gauge the extent of popular loyalty throughout the country. Ministers, however, were far from complacent. The results suggest neither widespread loyalism nor extensive alienation.
Others were not prepared to fight far from home but would enlist in local volunteer and militia units. Responded to such concerns, a national defence force of regular units, militias, and Volunteer units was constructed.
At the height of the invasion scare infollowing the lull of the Peace of Amiensapproximately one in five able-bodied men enlisted in some form of military organisation.
War became, for the first time, a national endeavour touching practically every family in the land. At the height of the invasion scare in the mass dissemination of loyalist ballads and broadsides had become a hugely efficient part of government strategy - so much so that, during the invasion threat loyalism became completely ascendant.
But the practical struggle for the hearts and minds of the British people meant that popular awareness of the national political agenda expanded dramatically. The reformers may have failed, but British political culture changed fundamentally in the course of resisting their efforts.
Limited electoral reform was conceded inuniversal suffrage in The Beats & Sixties Counterculture The s are associated with what Frank calls ‘the big change, the birthplace of our own culture, the homeland of hip’, a period of .
The end of World War II was not just the end of a war, but also the beginning of a tense and dynamic period that affected society on all levels.
This “postwar” period, as it became known, shaped the world as we know it today; likewise, the period was shaped itself both by the war that had preceded it, and the powerful forces that surrounded it.
Feb 17, · The ardour for liberty 'How much the greatest event that has happened in the history of the world, and how much the best' - Charles James Fox, Opposition Whig leader News of .
In several cases, individual attitudes did indeed correlate significantly with characteristics in a similar domain: Positive attitudes toward leadership and high levels of sociability were strongly related, for example, as were attitudes toward sports and levels of athleticism.
The findings indicate how attitudes might be transmitted, says Olson. Both women in the ‘Take it as it comes’ and the ‘Fearful’ cluster had higher odds of having an elective caesarean compared to women in the ‘Self determiners’.
Understanding women’s attitudes and level of fear may help midwives and doctors to tailor their interactions with women. Its main attitude is reconciliation in order to create a better and more peaceful world, to share the world’s resources more equally, and to help the underprivileged.