Pressurized Plasma Electrolysis Experiments, J. A Tribute to Georges Lonchampt, J.
April 17,Aalto University The wavelength of emitted light grows, that is, the energy decreases, along the gold nanorod array. A Bose-Einstein condensate forms when an energy minimum of the lattice is reached. Researchers at Aalto University, Finland, have created a Bose-Einstein condensate of light coupled with metal electrons, so-called surface plasmon polaritons.
Nearly years ago, Albert Einstein and Satyendra Nath Bose predicted that quantum mechanics could force a large number of particles to behave in concert as if they were only a single particle.
Although Bose-Einstein condensations have been observed in several systems, researchers are pushing the limits of the phenomenon—to faster timescales, higher temperatures, and smaller sizes.
As creating these condensates becomes easier, more exciting routes open for new technological applications. New light sources, for example, could be extremely small in size and allow fast information processing.
Aalto researchers made condensed particles from mixtures of light and electrons in motion within gold nanorods arranged into a periodic array. Unlike most previous experimental Bose-Einstein condensates, the new condensate does not need to be cooled down to temperatures near absolute zero—because the particles are mostly light, the condensation could be induced in room temperature.
Near the nanorods, light can be focused into tiny volumes, even below the wavelength of light in vacuum.
The main hurdle in acquiring proof of the new kind of condensate is that it comes into being extremely quickly. Turning distance into time A key idea was to initiate the condensation process with a kick so that the particles forming the condensate would start to move.
By observing the light, we can monitor how the condensation proceeds in time. This is how we can turn distance into time," explains staff scientist Tommi Hakala.
The light that the condensate emits is similar to laser light. The two are closely related phenomena, and being able to distinguish between them is crucial for fundamental research. Both lasing and Bose-Einstein condensation provide bright beams, but the coherences of the light they offer have different properties.
These, in turn, affect the ways the light can be tuned to meet the requirements of a specific application. The new condensate can produce light pulses that are extremely short and may offer faster speeds for information processing and imaging applications.The phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation is responsible for the superfluidity of helium and for the superconductivity of an electron gas, which involves Bose-condensed electron pairs.
However, these phenomena happen at high density, and their understanding requires a detailed treatment of the interactions.
This classic text, first published in , is designed for graduate physics courses in statistical mechanics. The second edition, published in , incorporated three comprehensive chapters on phase transitions and critical phenomena. The author presents a tutorial review of some ideas that are basic to our current understanding of the phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in the dilute atomic alkali gases, with special emphasis on the case of .
This textbook offers a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the basic ideas in modern quantum optics, beginning with a review of the whole of optics, and culminating in the quantum description of light. Albert Einstein's work on quantum mechanics is of major importance to information philosophy, because we depend on a limited indeterminism and an "adequate" or statistical determinism to explain the possibilities in an open future needed to create new information.
Einstein was in the discoverer of indeterminism and ontological chance, though he was reluctant to fully accept chance in his.
Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a state of matter in which separate atoms or subatomic particles, cooled to near absolute zero (0 K, − °C, or − °F; K = kelvin), coalesce into a single quantum mechanical entity—that is, one that can be described by a wave function—on a near-macroscopic scale.